Adenoids are lymphoid tissue in the back of throat behind the nose. The human mouth has three types of tonsils, the palatine tonsils, the lingual tonsils and the pharyngeal, or adenoids. The adenoids like tonsils can collect stones inside. Adenoid stones, also called adenoidoliths, are formed by calcified, partially hardened debris that collects in the adenoid crypts.
Adenoid stones often develop in people with allergies, sinusitis or foreign bodies trapped with debris in the crevices of adenoid. Calcified deposits can form in any crevices within the adenoid. Due to their unique, germ-filtering anatomy, the adenoids like tonsils are ideal for collecting foreign debris. Tissue irritation and damage makes it easier for debris to adhere to the area and form adenoid stones.
The primary constituent of tonsil and adenoid stones is collagen, which includes dead skin cells and protein. Once the debris is trapped, bacteria colonies begin growing. These anaerobic bacteria produce odorous compounds, including methyl mercaptan, a substance that produces a garlicky or onion-like smell and hydrogen sulfide, a powerful, odorous compound that smells unfortunately similar to rotten eggs or natural gas. Secondary compounds found in tonsil and adenoid stones include ammonia and various minerals.
Treatment by Adenoidectomy
Adenoidectomy involves the total removal of the adenoid glands. The surgery is performed under general anesthesia. Adenoid removal may involve the use of a curette to remove the tissue or a microdebrider followed by cauterization. A packing with gauze or similar material may be employed to control bleeding.
Small debris and stones can be removed under local anesthesia under endoscopic view like below: