Most nose bleeds (epistaxis) are not serious. However, some can be quite frightening, and a few are even life-threatening. We classify nosebleeds into two different types.
Most nosebleeds begin in the lower anterior part of the septum, the semi-rigid wall that separates the two nostrils of the nose. The septum contains blood vessels that can be broken by being struck in the nose or by the edge of a fingernail or even a rolled-up tissue. Or by sneezing. If there is trauma to nose, then also one can get nose bleed. Foreign body lodged in the nasal passage presentt as blood stain discharge.
Rarely, a nosebleed can begin high up and deep within the nasal cavity and flow down the back of the mouth and throat even if the patient is sitting or standing. Posterior nosebleeds are more likely to occur in older people, persons with high blood pressure, and in cases of injury to the nose or face. Posterior nosebleeds are often more severe and almost always require a physician’s care. Frequently, posterior nosebleeds are severe enough to require some form of packing.
Treatment of anterior nosebleeds
Keep the child calm. If he or she is upset, the bleeding may become worse. Soak half of a cotton ball with Otrivine Paedtiatric nasal drops or Nasivion nasal drops, place it in the nostril that is bleeding, and pinch the nose firmly for 10 minutes. Put ice packs on the bridge of nose.
Keep the head elevated.
If the nosebleed persists, see your doctor or go to the nearest emergency room. After the bleeding stops, get an Xray of Nose and Sinuses to rule out any infection and Foreign body.
Do not pick or blow nose.
Do not strain or bend down to lift anything heavy.
Keep head higher than the heart.
If re-bleeding occurs:
Attempt to clear nose of all blood clots by blowing it gently.
What causes nosebleeds?
Allergies, infections, or dryness that cause itching and lead to picking of the nose.
Vigorous nose blowing that ruptures superficial blood vessels in the elderly and in the young.
Picking of the nose.
A deviated septum
Viral fever like the recent chikun guinea, rat fever
Clotting disorders that run in families or are due to medications.
Fractures of the nose
Rarely, tumors (both malignant and nonmalignant) have to be considered, particularly in the older patient
(The treatment of persisting Nose bleed- Next session)