A nosebleed (epistaxis) is the relatively common occurrence of bleeding from the nose.
The bleeding may be profuse, or simply a minor complication. The incidence of nosebleeds is higher during the colder winter months when upper respiratory infections are more frequent, and the temperature and humidity fluctuate more dramatically.
There are two types of nose bleed:
– Anterior (the most common), and
– posterior (less common, more severe).
and Rupture of dilated blood vessels at the Little\’s area, on the anterior part of nasal septum, rupture
and Inflammatory reaction (eg. acute respiratory tract infections, chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis)
and Foreign bodies
and Intranasal tumors (Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in adult, and juvenile angiofibroma in adolescent males)
and High Blood Pressure
and Drugs – aspirin, warfarin, cloplet etc
and Blood dyscrasias
and Hematological malignancy
and Infectious diseases
and Vascular disorders
First Aid Measures
and Get the patient to sit down, lean slightly forward and pinch the fleshy part of the nose, and push against the bony parts of the face. They should breathe through their mouth, spitting out blood to avoid choking, and to aid assessment of control of blood loss.
and The pressure and posture should be maintained for at least 10 minutes but a longer time may be required.
and Ice packs to forehead may be applied
and First aid also includes inserting either a balloon inflated nasal tampon
and Uncontrollable epistaxis and posterior epistaxis should be referred to hospital.
Persistent epistaxis is an indication for urgent ENT consultation. Nasal packing, cryosurgery, electrocautery, laser cautery or application of silver nitrate are options that may be used in minor epistaxis. If a nosebleed lasts for more than 15 minutes, accompanied by severe blood loss, you should call your doctor or go to the emergency room.
(More on the treatment of Epistaxis, look for similar articles on this site)