Common Causes of husky or hoarseness of voice are the following:
Most times these will respond to appropriate speech therapy. Occasionally these may persist after intensive speech therapy and will require meticulous micro laryngeal surgery.
Vocal Cord Polyps:
These are benign lesions of the larynx, usually located on the edge of the vocal cords, which prevent the vocal cords from meeting in the midline. Polyps can interfere with voice production and may produce a hoarse, breathy voice that tires easily. These may respond to conservative medical therapy and intensive speech therapy. If the lesion fails to respond, meticulous microsurgery may be indicated. One of the cofactors in the cause of these lesions may be laryngeal reflux disease.
Laryngitis sicca is caused by inadequate hydration of the vocal folds. Thick, sticky mucus prevents the folds from vibrating in a fluid, uniform manner.
Vocal fold hemorrhage is a very rare occurrence that usually is caused by aggressive or improper use of vocal folds (e.g. cheerleading). It is a result of rupture of a blood vessel on the true vocal fold, with bleeding into the tissues of the fold.
If cancerous lesions are detected early, they can be treated with either radiation or surgery, with a cure rate approaching 96%.
Vocal cord paralysis or paresis results from a lesion of the neural or muscular mechanism.
and Unilateral vocal fold paralysis can be caused by a variety of diseases or disorders that prevent movement in one vocal fold. When one weakened vocal fold does not move well enough to meet the other cord in the midline during speech, air leaks out too quickly. This causes the voice to sound breathy and weak, making it necessary for the speaker to take more frequent breaths during speech. After a full day of talking, someone with a weak vocal cord can feel exhausted due to frequent breathing, and can experience choking and coughing on food or liquids.
and Bilateral vocal fold paralysis: When both vocal cords have movement problems, the situation can be much more serious. With both vocal folds paralyzed in the midline position, the person has difficulty breathing and a tracheotomy may be necessary to establish an airway. If both cords are paralyzed near the midline, although the voice may be good the airway may be compromised. If both cords are paralyzed far apart, there may be no voice.
Vocal fold bowing can result from neural, muscular, traumatic, congenital, or functional causes, with or without vocal fold atrophy, and can result in vocal weakness.
Presbylarynx: is a condition that is caused by thinning of the vocal cord muscle and tissues with aging. The vocal folds have less bulk than a normal larynx and therefore do not meet in the midline. As a result, the patient has a hoarse, weak, or breathy voice. This condition can be corrected by injection of fat or other material into both vocal folds to achieve better closure.
Laryngeal dystonia, or spasmodic dysphonia (SD), is a voice disorder caused by involuntary movements of one or more muscles of the larynx. There are two major types of spasmodic dysphonia: adductor and abductor, although most are a mixture of both types.
and Adductor SD, with spasms causing sporadic vocal cord closures, are identified by a strained, strangled voice.
and Abductor SD, with spasms causing sporadic (occasional) vocal cord closures, produces a voice with interruptions of air.
Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Disease (LPRD)
Common symptoms of LPRD include hoarseness, cough, frequent throat clearing, pain or a “lump” in the throat, problems with swallowing and difficulty with singing high notes.
Functional Disorders involve inappropriate laryngeal muscle movement, and often require extensive speech therapy.
Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Disease (LPRD) treatment normally involves a combination of dietary adjustments, behavioral and lifestyle modification (such as stress reduction techniques), and medications.
Micro laryngeal surgery
A problem in the vocal chords or a voice disorder is something that can be cured and corrected through the Micro Laryngeal Surgery. As the name suggests, Laryngeal Surgery is related to the treatment of the larynx or the vocal chords and involves the removal of lesions like nodules and polyps.
Micro Laryngeal Surgery is a kind of minor surgery that involves the use of endoscope, which is inserted in the larynx area through the mouth. Almost all micro laryngeal surgery is done under general anesthesia.
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